Wednesday, 20 December 2017

ACTIVITY PROFILE BETWEEN WINNERS AND LOSERS IN MALE SILAT OLAHRAGA CLASS E SEA GAMES 2015
Abstract
The Purpose of this study was to describe and investigate the activity profile between winners and losers in male Silat Olahraga SEA Games 2015. The category of the silat olahraga that has been notated was from Men’s Class E and four matches have been selected, which there were Men’s Class E Quarter Final, two matches from Men’s Class E Semi Final and Men’s Class E Final. There were a lot of skills and techniques that were used during the Silat Olahraga Sea Games 2015. As example, the common techniques that been used in this competition were punch, kick, sweep, topple, block, catch, dodge and many more. All these motion categories have been chose as it were used in order to analyze the performance of the winner and losers in Men’s Class E Silat Olahraga.  The data was collected and been analyzed  by using IBM Statistic SPSS 20.The notational analysis was used to record all the selected outcomes to compliment this study such as hit target, hit elsewhere and miss opponent indicators.

Introduction
‘Silat’ is a term used to describe a form of martial art practiced throughout the Malay Archipelago. Silat is known as one of the martial arts that originated from Indonesia. It is called as a tradition practiced in southern Thailand, Singapore, Vietnam, Brunei, Philippines and Malaysia. In Malay dictionary, silat can be defined as a combination if art and intelligence to perform attack and defense with a beautiful form. The other source that defines silat is from the word of kilat (lightning) (Shamsuddin, 2005). The combination of the words Pencak and Silat into a compound word was made for the first time when an organization of the unity of Pencak schools and Silat schools in Indonesia was founded in Surakarta in 1948, which called Ikatan Pencak Silat Indonesia (The Indonesian Pencak Silat Association), abbreviated as IPSI (Kartomi, 2011). Pencak Silat brings to light very different subjectivities, inter-subjectivities, and ways of objectifying the body in regional- and national-level practice (Wilson, 2009). Silat is one of the sports that included in the Southeast Asian Games and other region-wide competitions. Silat is a form of several factors such as education from a tradition, self-defense, spiritual and ritual components and now it has established as a sport around the world (Wilson, 2003). In the modern era, Silat also has evolved on the African continent, Western countries and other big countries. In the other word, Silat has been famous entire of the world. It is widely implemented in the form of art and sport competitions such as Southeast Asian Games and other region-wide competition.
Persekutuan Pencak Silat Antarabangsa (PERSILAT) is the international organization of Pencak Silat in the world. It founded in Jakarta on March 1980. While in Malaysia, PESAKA is the National Silat Federation and was founded by Silat Seni Gayong Malaysia, Silat Cekak Malaysia, Silat Lincah Malaysia and Seni Gayung Fatani Malaysia. Other organisations of Silat are Persekutuan Silat Brunei Darussalam (PERSIB) and Persekutuan Silat Singapura (PERSISI). On 23rd to 24th September 1979, during the 14th SEA Games, Indonesian Pencak Silat Federation (IPSI) has presented Silat Olahraga. The first competition of Silat Olahraga has been held in Singapore at 1980. Silat Olahraga is a popular combat sport, but less is known about the sports in terms of sport science of physiological demands and characteristics (Shapie, 2011). In order to develop the rules of Silat Olahraga event, pencak Silat procedures has made an improvisation that are based on the karate, kempo and jujitsu moves for perfection. In 1982, Pencak Silat has presented two new different categories which are Silat Seni and Silat Olahraga (Aziz, Tan, and Teh, 2002). Afterward, the term of the categories has changed into Tunggal, Ganda, Regu and Tanding (Olahraga Pencak Silat/Silat Olahraga).  Southeast Asean Games (SEA Games) is a sport event among 11 countries of Southeast Asia included Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Timor-Leste and Vietnam (Seneviratne, 1993). This event will be held every two year. There are three rounds in total of fighting. Two minutes for every round, with 1 minute rest between each round. For the basic commands, the ‘wasit’ which is represent as referee will state the command 'Sedia', which is meaning 'ready'. Next, when he shout 'Mulai', it is meaning 'begin'. Immediately the 'gong' will be struck. When the wasit wants to stop the fight, he will shout 'Berhenti', meaning 'stop'.
Sport analysis technology is important because it will provide coach’s feedback usually with video based evidence since people only can remember about 30% of what they see (Stice, 2009). Knowing the nature of the sport is important because formal game can be categorise into three which are net and wall games, invasion games, and striking and fielding games.
Performance indicator is a type of performance measurement. Performance measurement is the process of collecting, analysing and reporting information regarding the performance of an individual, group, organization, system or component.

Material and Methods
Match Analysis
The video has been used to analyze the data collected in four matches from Men’s Class E Quarter Final, Men’s Class E Semi Finals and Men’s Class E Final SEA Games 2015. The video consumed from the YouTube Channel. Both winner and loser participants in this Men’s Class E matches will be classified and notated. The outcomes data used were hit target, hit elsewhere and miss opponent.
Motion Categories
Silat exponent’s motions were coded into 14 different types of categories and were defined as follows:
1.    Punch:
·         The punch ‘tumbuk’ attack is done by a hand with a closed fist hitting the target. In silat punching is often used to fight the opponent. It can be a straight punch ‘tumbuk lurus’ or uppercut ‘sauk’ to the exponent body’s (Anuar, 1992).

2.    Kick:
·         The kick ‘tendang / terajang’ is an attacking movement which is performed with one leg or two legs simultaneously. A kick can be aimed at any target. It can be front kick ‘tendang depan’, side-kick ‘depak’ or semi-circular side kick ‘tendang lengkar’ (Anuar, 1992).

3.    Block:
·         The blocking movements begin with the posture position ‘sikap pasang’: the exponent stands straight with his hands around his body or close to his chest. Blocking or parrying ‘tangkisan’ can be done using arms, elbows and legs with the purpose to block off or striking back at any attack (Anuar, 1992).

4.    Catch:
·         The catch ‘tangkapan’ is done by using the hand to obstruct the opponent from carrying out an attack. The silat exponent is able to prevent himself from being attacked by pointing the attack which he has caught to another direction. A catch which twists or drags the opponent is forbidden. Also, a catch which could break the part which is being held such as the leg and waist is also forbidden. These regulations exist to protect the silat exponent’s (Anuar, 1992).


5.    Topple:
·         There are various ways of toppling down one’s opponent. For example, a silat exponent ‘pesilat’ can either push, shove the opponent’s back leg from the bag or from the side, shove, hit, kick, strike or punch to make the opponent lose his balance. Every fall is considered valid as long as the silat exponent topples his opponent down without wrestling or he is able to overpower the opponent whom he has brought down. (Anuar, 1992).

6.    Sweep:
·         Swiping ‘sapuan’ involves attacking an opponent’s leg which is on the ground to unstabilise him and bring down to the ground. A silat exponent can perform this attacking movement either with his right or left leg, Hence, front sweep ‘sapuan depan’ is done by swinging the leg to the front to push an opponent’s front leg, while back sweep ‘sapuan belakang’ is carried out by swinging the leg backward to hit the back leg (Anuar, 1992).

7.    Evade/Dodge:
·         The evade ‘elakan’ technique is carried out by silat exponent when he tries to evade an attack. This technique does not require the silat exponent to touch the opponent in fending off the attack. They are many ways of carrying out his defensive movement such as dodging ‘gelek’, retreat ‘mundur’, evasion to the side ‘elak sisi’, bending ‘elak serung’, jumping ‘lonjak’, ducking ‘susup’ and etc (Anuar, 1992).

8.    Self-Release:
·         Self-release ‘lepas tangkapan’ technique is a technique to unlock any clinch or catch from an opponent (Anuar, 1993).

9.    Block and Punch:
·         The blocking technique is used to block any hand or leg attack from the opponent and followed by counter attack using the hand to punch the opponent (Shapie, Oliver, O’Donoghue, & Tong, 2013).


10.  Block and Kick:
·         The blocking technique is used to block any hand or leg attack from the opponent and followed by counter attack using the leg to kick the opponent (Shapie et al., 2013).

11.  Block and Sweep:
·         The blocking technique is used to block any hand or leg attack from the opponent and followed by counter attack using sweeping technique to the opponent (Shapie et al., 2013).

12.  Fake Punch:
·         An action which a silat exponent intends to confuse the opponent using a fake punch to break his opponent’s defensive posture (Shapie et al., 2013).

13.  Fake Kick:
·         An action which a silat exponent intends to confuse the opponent using a fake kick to break his opponent defensive posture (Shapie et al., 2013).

14.  Others:
·         Both silat exponents are either in posture position ‘sikap pasang’ or coming close to each other using silat step pattern ‘pola langkah’. All the activities are considered high intensity except for others which at that time both silat exponents are in low intensity periods (Shapie et al., 2013)

Statistical Analysis
All the notated data generated was exported into Microsoft Excel Spreadsheet and transferred into SPSS for more detailed analysis. Statistical analysis was conducted using IBM Statistic Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) version 20.  A descriptive analysis was used to determine the different of performance between winners and losers in Silat matches.

Result
All the matches from Men’s quarter Finals, Semi Final and Final Class E SEA Games 2015 have been notated and the results have been put in the table. Matches 1 to 4 represent the results of total frequencies of action and outcomes recorded when analyzed the videos.
Match 1: Total frequency of outcomes recorded during Men’s Class E Quarter Final between teams Singapore (Winner) and Thailand (Loser).
Action
Outcome
Hit Elsewhere
Hit Target
Miss Opponent
Not Available*
Total
L
W
T
L
W
T
L
W
T
Block

2
2
2
9
11




13
Block and Kick
1

1

1
1




2
Block and Punch



1

1
2
2
4

5
Block and sweep
1
1
2







2
Kick
19
12
31
8
4
12
13
4
17

60
Fake Kick

5
5
4
1
5
6

6

16
Punch
10
19
29
6
19
25
9
9
18

72
Fake Punch











Self-Release



7
2
9
4
2
6

15
Topple
1
1
2
1
1
2
2
1
3

7
Sweep
1
8
9

3
3
6
2
8

20
Catch
1
4
5
1
5
6
2
9
11

22
Dodge

1
1
5
16
21
2
2
4

26
Others









34
34
Total


87


96


77
34
294

Match 2: Total frequency of outcomes recorded during Men’s Class E Quarter Final between teams Malaysia (Winner) and Indonesia (Loser).
Action
Outcome
Hit Elsewhere
Hit Target
Miss Opponent
Not Available*
Total
L
W
T
L
W
T
L
W
T
Block



5
1
6
2
2
4

10
Block and Kick






1

1

1
Block and Punch






1

1

1
Block and sweep











Kick
1
9
10
4
11
15
14
3
17

42
Fake Kick



3
4
7

1
1

8
Punch



2
2
4
1

1

5
Fake Punch
1
1
2
5
7
12
8
2
10

24
Self-Release



1
3
4




4
Topple




2
2
5
1
6

8
Sweep




1
1
1
2
3

4
Catch



9
4
13

1
1

14
Dodge




6
6




6
Others









14
14
Total


12


70


45
14
141



Match 3: Total frequency of outcomes recorded during Men’s Class E Semi Final between teams Malaysia (Winner) and Singapore (Loser).
Action
Outcome
Hit Elsewhere
Hit Target
Miss Opponent
Not Available*
Total
W
L
T
W
L
T
W
L
T
Block



6
1
7

1
1

8
Block and Kick











Block and Punch











Block and sweep











Kick
8
5
13
8

8
3
16
19

40
Fake Kick



2
1
3

`1
1

4
Punch
1
2
3
2
4
6

4
4

13
Fake Punch



2

2
1

1

3
Self-Release











Topple



3

3




3
Sweep
2

2
4
1
5

3
3

10
Catch



1
1
2
2
1
3

5
Dodge



11
1
12




12
Others









18
18
Total


18


48


32
18
116

Match 4: Total frequency of outcomes recorded during Men’s Class E Final between teams Malaysia (Winner) and Vietnam (Loser).
Action
Outcome
Hit Elsewhere
Hit Target
Miss Opponent
Not Available*
Total
L
W
T
L
W
T
L
W
T
Block
4

4
2
6
8
5
3
8

20
Block and Kick
1
1
2
1
2
3

1
1

6
Block and Punch

1
1







1
Block and sweep











Kick
11
5
16
5
3
8
7
1
8

32
Fake Kick



1

1
1

1

2
Punch
2
2
4
5

5
1

1

10
Fake Punch



1

1
3

3

4
Self-Release
1
1
2
1
2
3
10

10

15
Topple

1
1

10
10
4

4

15
Sweep




1
1
1
3
4

5
Catch
4

4

11
11




15
Dodge
3

3

3
3

1
1

7
Others









15
15
Total


23


54


41
15
133
*Note: R – Red. B – Blue. T – Total.
Discussion
The data above were collected by analyzed the matches from SEA Games 2015 which included the videos from Men’s Class E Quarter Finals, Semi Final and Final.
From the data collected above, for the match 1 Between Thailand and Singapore, it shown that Singapore Silat athlete is mostly collects the points through the punch and sweep. By collecting the higher points in these techniques, it can give advantage to the athlete to winning the game. The statistic and frequency table also has been stated in table 1, 2 and 3 by the mean shown that Thailand Silat athlete was 1.91, slightly higher than Singapore Silat athlete. However, athlete from Singapore still won the game. This is due to less accuracy in kicking the hit target produced by Thailand athlete. The reliability also has been taken to get the Cronbach’s Alpha value. The optimum Cronbach’s Alpha value that reaches the reliability of study is ³ 0.8. Therefore, in this study, the result from table 4 and 5 showed a positive and reliable value that higher than 0.8.
In the match 2, the game was between Malaysia and Indonesia. The table has shown that Malaysian Silat athlete frequently gained the points from the kick. Besides, Malaysian Silat athlete also gained point from topple and sweep which this techniques provided higher point. The statistic has shown the higher overall mean of Malaysian athlete than to Indonesian athlete. As it has been stated before, which the Malaysian athlete gained point from kick, topple and sweep, as these affect the mean, 2.23 for Malaysia team and 2.14 for Indonesia team. Table 6, 7 and 8 provided the statistic of this game. For this match, the reliability showed the result 1 and 0.98, in table 9 and 10, which it means the value were reliable.
In third match, between Malaysia and Singapore for Men’s Class E Semi Final, shows that Malaysian Silat athlete was likely to gain points in kicking, topple and sweep. The frequencies of the outcome hit target for kick, topple and sweep of Malaysian Silat athlete were higher than Singapore Silat athlete. Based on statistic, it shown that the mean of the frequencies also higher than his opponent from Singapore. In this study, the result from table 14 and 15 also showed a reliable Cronbach’s Alpha value that remain optimum, which were 0.94 and 0.99.
For the final match between Malaysia and Vietnam, Malaysian Silat athlete was most likely to score point from topple. The frequency outcomes for the techniques also show a little better from Malaysian Silat athlete even though this final game was given great opposition from Vietnam Silat athlete. The statistic also has shown the mean of Malaysian Silat athlete higher than Vietnam Silat athlete. For this final match, the reliability also showed a positive value, which was 0.93 for both winner and loser.   
Conclusion
In conclusion, this study has highlights a great differences between winners and loser on their activity profile for the SEA Games 2015. There a lot of winning factors that influenced the winners to gain more points during the games. From the observation, athlete who is more in gaining the hit target is more likely has the chance to win the game. This is because the accuracy on hitting the target and also have the quality in performing the techniques in Silat like kick, topple and many more is the important element to ensure the athlete to win the game. Besides, from the video that has been analyzed, all the athletes show a good sportsmanship. This proved that correct and effective technical and tactical are the main factor to win the match.

Recommendation
It is recommended that both attacking and defensive skills should be balanced during their training programs. Both of these skills require diligence and focus to master the skills. Attacking skills must be focus on hitting the target to get points, but at the same time they have to increase their defensive play such as blocking in order to avoid the opponents gain their points. The skills development for both attacking and defending need to be precise at time to time based on training programs that has been structured by the coaches. Coaches play the important role by leveling up their athletes to master the skills. Based on the result, also the main factor to win the game is by punching and kicking the hit target, because these skills give opportunity to hit their opponent as much as they can to get more point from punch and kick.
Meanwhile, the participant should reduce the punch and kick the hit elsewhere because this will give disadvantage and no point will be given. For the sweep skill, in order to decrease the missed target, the fighter needs to focus, while in good position and try to estimate opponent’s next movement. Topple that hit the target is so important because it will gives extra points. So, the recommendation here is the fighter must keep improving their technical and tactical and maintaining the fitness and also sharpen the attacking and defending aspect in order to win the match.





References
Anuar AW. Teknik dalam seni silat melayu [In Malay] (Technique in Silat Melayu). Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka; 1992.
Anuar, A. W. (1993). Silat Olahraga (2nd edn.). The art, technique and regulations.
Aziz, A. R., Tan, B., & Teh, K. C. (2002). Physiological responses during matches and profile of elite pencak silat exponents. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 1, 147-155.
Kartomi, M. (2011). Traditional and modern forms of pencak silat in indonesia: The suku mamak in riau. Musicology Australia, 33(1), 47-68. doi: 10.1080/08145857.2011.580716
Latiff, Z. A. (2012b). Revisiting pencak silat: The malay martial arts in theatre practice and actor training. Asian Theatre Journal, 29(2), 379-401.
Parnabas, V., Shapie, M. N. M., & Parnabas, J. (2015). Level of Drugs Usage and Sport Performance in Malay Silat. Ido Movement for Culture. Journal of Martial Arts Anthropology, 15(2), 45-51.
Shamsuddin, S. (2005). The malay art of self-defense: Silat seni gayong: North Atlantic Books.
Shapie, M. M., Oliver, J., O’Donoghue, P., & Tong, R. (2013). Activity profile during action time in national silat competition. Journal of Combat Sports and Martial Arts.1(2), 81-86.
Shapie, M. N. M. (2011). Influence of age and maturation on fitness development, trainability and competitive performance in youth silat. Cardiff Metropolitan University.  
Shapie, M. N. M., Oliver, J., O’Donoghue, P., & Tong, R. (2013). Activity profile during action time in national silat competition. Journal of Combat Sports and Martial Arts, 4(1), 75-79.
Sport Singapore. (2015). Pencak Silat Tanding Men's Class E Semi-Final Singapore vs Malaysia; 28th SEA Games Singapore 2015. Retrieved at November 16, 2017 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L62CI3MJ-8A
Sport Singapore. (2015). Pencak Silat Tanding Men's Class E Final Malaysia vs Vietnam; 28th SEA Games Singapore 2015. Retrieved at November 16, 2017 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aGK1CSVk0qs
Stice, J. (2009). A Refutation of the Percentages Often Associated with Edgar Dale's" Cone of Learning". Paper presented at the American Society for Engineering Education.
Vincent, P., Nizan, M. S. M., & Julinamary, P. (2015). Motives of taking part in Malay Silat, Karate-Do and Taekwondo. Ido Movement for Culture. Journal of Martial Arts Anthropology15(3), 22-26.
Wilson, I. D. (2003). The politics of inner power: The practice of pencak silat in west java. Murdoch University.
Wilson, L. (2009). Jurus, jazz riffs and the constitution of a national martial art in indonesia. Body & Society, 15(3), 93-119. doi: 10.1177/1357034X09339103


















Appendices

Statistics of Winner and Loser in Quarterfinal THA vs SIN

Winner
Loser
N
Valid
83
76
Missing
0
7
Mean
1.78
1.91
Std. Error of Mean
.120
.099
Std. Deviation
1.094
.867
Table 1
Winner of Quarterfinal THA vs SIN

Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Valid
Punch
47
56.6
56.6
56.6
Kick
20
24.1
24.1
80.7
Topple
3
3.6
3.6
84.3
Sweep
13
15.7
15.7
100.0
Total
83
100.0
100.0

Table 2
Loser of Quarterfinal THA vs SIN

Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Valid
Punch
25
30.1
32.9
32.9
Kick
40
48.2
52.6
85.5
Topple
4
4.8
5.3
90.8
Sweep
7
8.4
9.2
100.0
Total
76
91.6
100.0

Missing
System
7
8.4


Total
83
100.0


Table 3







Reliability Statistics of Winner in Quarterfinal THA vs SIN
Cronbach's Alpha
Cronbach's Alpha Based on Standardized Items
N of Items
.992
.992
2
Table 4

Reliability Statistics of Loser in Quarterfinal THA vs SIN
Cronbach's Alpha
Cronbach's Alpha Based on Standardized Items
N of Items
.991
.991
2
Table 5















Statistics of Winner and Loser in Quarterfinal MAS vs INA

Winner
Loser
N
Valid
31
28
Missing
0
3
Mean
2.23
2.14
Std. Error of Mean
.129
.123
Std. Deviation
.717
.651
Table 6
Winner of Quarterfinal MAS vs INA

Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Valid
Punch
2
6.5
6.5
6.5
Kick
23
74.2
74.2
80.6
Topple
3
9.7
9.7
90.3
Sweep
3
9.7
9.7
100.0
Total
31
100.0
100.0

Table 7
Loser of Quarterfinal MAS vs INA

Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Valid
Punch
3
9.7
10.7
10.7
Kick
19
61.3
67.9
78.6
Topple
5
16.1
17.9
96.4
Sweep
1
3.2
3.6
100.0
Total
28
90.3
100.0

Missing
System
3
9.7


Total
31
100.0


Table 8






Reliability Statistics of Winner in Quarterfinal MAS vs INA
Cronbach's Alpha
Cronbach's Alpha Based on Standardized Items
N of Items
1.000
1.000
2
Table 9

Reliability Statistics of Loser in Quarterfinal MAS vs INA
Cronbach's Alpha
Cronbach's Alpha Based on Standardized Items
N of Items
.980
.980
2
Table 10











Statistics of Winner and Loser in Semifinal SIN vs MAS

Winner
Loser
N
Valid
31
35
Missing
4
0
Mean
2.39
1.94
Std. Error of Mean
.165
.147
Std. Deviation
.919
.873
Table 11
Winner of Semifinal SIN vs MAS

Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Valid
Punch
3
8.6
9.7
9.7
Kick
19
54.3
61.3
71.0
Topple
3
8.6
9.7
80.6
Sweep
6
17.1
19.4
100.0
Total
31
88.6
100.0

Missing
System
4
11.4


Total
35
100.0


Table 12
Loser of Semifinal SIN vs MAS

Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Valid
Punch
10
28.6
28.6
28.6
Kick
21
60.0
60.0
88.6
Sweep
4
11.4
11.4
100.0
Total
35
100.0
100.0

Table 13









Reliability Statistics of Winner in Semifinal SIN vs MAS
Cronbach's Alpha
Cronbach's Alpha Based on Standardized Items
N of Items
.937
.940
2
Table 14

Reliability Statistics of Loser in Semifinal SIN VS MAS
Cronbach's Alpha
Cronbach's Alpha Based on Standardized Items
N of Items
.991
.991
2
Table 15











Statistics of Winner and Loser in Final MAS vs VIE

Winner
Loser
N
Valid
26
36
Missing
10
0
Mean
2.65
1.94
Std. Error of Mean
.166
.112
Std. Deviation
.846
.674
Table 16
Winner of Final MAS vs VIE

Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Valid
Punch
2
5.6
7.7
7.7
Kick
9
25.0
34.6
42.3
Topple
11
30.6
42.3
84.6
Sweep
4
11.1
15.4
100.0
Total
26
72.2
100.0

Missing
System
10
27.8


Total
36
100.0


Table 17
Loser of Final MAS vs VIE

Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Valid
Punch
8
22.2
22.2
22.2
Kick
23
63.9
63.9
86.1
Topple
4
11.1
11.1
97.2
Sweep
1
2.8
2.8
100.0
Total
36
100.0
100.0

Table 18







Reliability Statistics of Winner in Final MAS vs VIE
Cronbach's Alpha
Cronbach's Alpha Based on Standardized Items
N of Items
.928
.929
2
Table 19

Reliability Statistics of Loser in Final MAS vs VIE
Cronbach's Alpha
Cronbach's Alpha Based on Standardized Items
N of Items
.929
.943
2
Table 20